Authentication is an important part of security these days. It is very useful in protecting sensitive and private information. It is preferable to rely on only authorized users for access. CAPTCHA is a method of protecting this information.
Many of us have seen or heard of CAPTCHA. You have most likely had to verify that you are human and not a bot to access a platform using the CAPTCHA method, and you may have wondered what exactly it means. Hence, we are going to discuss a little bit more about it.
CAPTCHA is a test that is designed to differentiate between real users and automated users on the internet. You may have often encountered tests like CAPTCHA and reCAPTCHA on the internet. So basically, it is used to find out if an internet user is actually a human and not a bot.
How Does CAPTCHA Work?
CAPTCHA works by simply providing challenges that are normally difficult for computers to perform but relatively give human verification test benefits, since these challenges are easier for humans. It asks users to perform some task, if the user does this task correctly, it provides authentication and allows the user to proceed.
These challenges may come as a simple mathematics equation, image-based puzzle, or simply requiring a user to tick a box for verification. Some more types and examples will be discussed in this post. However, before we go further, let’s consider cases where CAPTCHAs are used.
Uses and Examples of CAPTCHA
In general, a CAPTCHA is used to protect websites, apps, and other online services from automated attacks and spam. It is also used to prevent card and payment fraud. Website owners use it to ensure that their websites are accessed by only humans.
Some cases where CAPTCHAs are used include:
– Payment processes
– Online polls and voting
– Online ticket purchases
– Website comment posting
– Account creation
Some types and examples of CAPTCHA also include:
– Image-based CAPTCHA
– Text-based CAPTCHA
– Math or word problems
– Audio CAPTCHA
– Social media sign-in
Evolution of CAPTCHA
Text-based CAPTCHA: This test shows a randomly generated sequence of letters, sometimes including numbers, as a distorted image. A text box is required for you to simply type the characters you see in the image if you want to prove your human identity.
Image-based CAPTCHA: This was made to replace the text-based CAPTCHA. It uses visual elements that are normally recognizable. It could be photos of shapes, animals, or scenes. To verify your identity, you are required to select images matching a theme or pick out the odd images.
Limitations of Early CAPTCHA Systems
Vulnerability: These systems were still prone to automated threats and attacks like bots that they were supposed to prevent.
User Accessibility Issues: Some users get frustrated from trying to figure out the solution. Especially in text-based CAPTCHA, some numbers may look similar to some letters and vice versa. Users get tired of having to reload the texts multiple times.
Modern CAPTCHA Technologies
- Advanced Image Recognition CAPTCHA
This type is majorly divided into two forms. It can provide many images or require a user to select multiple images of similar objects or shapes. It may also be in the form of identifying specific objects.
- Audio-based CAPTCHA
An audio-based CAPTCHA test was created mainly for the visually impaired user. This CAPTCHA is a form of alternative to human verification which is accessible to the blind and other visually impaired individuals.
- Puzzle-solving CAPTCHA
Here, simple mathematical problems are provided, and a space for the user to give the answers to them. It may also be a logic-based puzzle where a user is required to solve a simple jigsaw puzzle.
Alternatives to CAPTCHA
CAPTCHAs may become inconvenient for some users, hence, there are many alternatives that provide almost similar levels of security.
Some common alternatives are :
– Two-factor Authentication (2FA): This form of security requires a user to provide dual forms of identification to access a website and app.
– Email Verification: This authentication method sends a verification code or link to the user’s email address for identification.
– Behavioral Analysis: Tools can be used to identify and block bots based on your browsing behavior. It may be the speed at which you navigate a website, mouse patterns, or scrolling and tapping behavior on smartphones.
– Social Media Log-in: Users can use their social media login parameters to authenticate and confirm identity.
In summary, CAPTCHA offers security against remote digital entry. This is done by ensuring that humans with passwords can log in to an account. Computers cannot read or solve a problem the way a human will to access services, however, they can create a distorted image and process responses. This is what makes CAPTCHA work.
However, with the way many internet users find CAPTCHA annoying and uncomfortable, it may not have many future advances. Users have opted for alternate authentication methods. Despite this, it doesn’t make CAPTCHA less effective.